Transparent electrodes for efficient optoelectronics

by Monica Morales-Masis, Stefaan De Wolf, Rachel Woods-Robinson, Joel W Ager, Christophe Ballif
Year: 2017 DOI:


Morales‐Masis, Monica, Stefaan De Wolf, Rachel Woods‐Robinson, Joel W. Ager, and Christophe Ballif. "Transparent electrodes for efficient optoelectronics." Advanced Electronic Materials 3, no. 5 (2017).


​With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano‐ and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light‐emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.​


Transparent Electrodes Optoelectronics