Sputtered transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices: Induced damage and mitigation strategies

by Erkan Aydin, Cesur Altinkaya, Yury Smirnov, Muhammad A. Yaqin, Kassio P.S Zanoni, Abhyuday Paliwal, Yuliar Firdaus, Thomas G. Allen, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Henk J. Bolink, Monica Morales-Masis, Stefaan De Wolf
Rewiew Year: 2021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matt.2021.09.021


Aydin, E., Altinkaya, C., Smirnov, Y., A. Yaqin, M., P. S. Zanoni, K., Paliwal, A., Firdaus, Y., G. Allen, T., D. Anthopoulos. T, J. Bolink, H., Morales-Masis, M., De Wolf, S.    


Transparent electrodes and metal contacts deposited by magnetron sputtering find applications in numerous state-of-the-art optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes. However, the deposition of such thin films may damage underlying sensitive device layers due to plasma emission and particle impact. Inserting a buffer layer to shield against such damage is a common mitigation approach. We start this review by describing how sputtered trans-parent top electrodes have become archetypal for a broad range of optoelectronic devices and then discuss the possible detrimental consequences of sputter damage on device performance. Next, we review common buffer-layer materials in view of their processing-property-performance relationship.  Finally,  we discuss strategies to eliminate the buffer-layer requirement by implementing alternative,  soft-landing deposition techniques for top electrodes.  Our review highlights the critical issue of sputter damage for optoelectronic devices,   formulates mitigation strategies,   and provides cross-field learnings that can lead to more efficient and reliable optoelectronic devices aimed for commercialization.


sputtering Bufer layers Optoelectronic devices Perovskite Organic silicon Chalcopyrite Chalcogenide tandem solar cells light-emitting  diodes