Hole transporting layers (HTLs) are an essential component in inverted, p-i-n perovskite solar cells (PSCs) where they play a decisive role in extraction and transport of holes, surface passivation, perovskite crystallization, device stability and cost. Currently, the exploration of efficient, stable, highly transparent and low-cost HTLs is of vital importance for propelling p-i-n PSCs toward commercialization. Compared to their inorganic counterparts, organic HTLs offer multiple advantages such as a tunable bandgap and energy levels, easy synthesis and purification, solution processability and overall low cost. In this review, recent progress of organic HTLs, including conductive polymers, small molecules and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), as utilized in inverted PSCs is systematically reviewed and summarized. Their molecular structure, hole transport properties, energy levels and relevant device properties and resulting performances are presented and analyzed. A summary of design principles and a future outlook towards highly efficient organic HTLs in inverted PSCs is proposed. This review aims to inspire further innovative development of novel organic HTLs for more efficient, stable, and scalable inverted PSCs.
Inverted perovskite solar cells
Organic hole transporting layers