Oxygen Vacancy Mediation in SnO2 Electron Transport Layers Enables Efficient, Stable, and Scalable Perovskite Solar Cells

by Qiangqiang Zhao, Bingqian Zhang, Wei Hui, Zhenhuang Su, Han Wang, Qi Zhang, Kun Gao, Xiaoxu Zhang
Article Year: 2024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.4c03783


Zhao, Q., Zhang, B., Hui, W., Su, Z., Wang, H., Zhang, Q., Gao, K., Zhang, X., Li, B., Gao, X., Wang, X., De Wolf, S., Wang, K., & Pang, S.


Previous findings have suggested a close association between oxygen vacancies in SnO2 and charge carrier recombination as well as perovskite decomposition at the perovskite/SnO2 interface. Underlying the fundamental mechanism holds great significance in achieving a more favorable balance between the efficiency and stability. In this study, we prepared three SnO2 samples with different oxygen vacancy concentrations and observed that a low oxygen vacancy concentration is conducive to long-term device stability. Iodide ions were observed to easily diffuse into regions with high oxygen vacancies, thereby speeding up the deprotonation of FAI, as made evident by the detection of the decomposition product formamide. In contrast, a high oxygen vacancy concentration in SnO2 could prevent hole injection, leading to a decrease in interfacial recombination losses. To suppress this decomposition reaction and address the trade-off, we designed a bilayer SnO2 structure to ensure highly efficient carrier transport still while maintaining a chemically inert surface. As a result, an enhanced efficiency of 25.06% (certified at 24.55% with an active area of 0.09 cm2 under fast scan) was achieved, and the extended operational stability maintained 90% of their original efficiency (24.52%) after continuous operation for nearly 2000 h. Additionally, perovskite submodules with an active area of 14 cm2 were successfully assembled with a PCE of up to 22.96% (20.09% with an aperture area).


perovskite solar cells stable perovskite solar cells SnO2